Immigrant status and acculturation have not been well studied in tandem, obscuring the potential interaction between these variables. Likewise, acculturation affects family functioning and gender roles within the family, including family conflict processes Flores et al. For immigrant Latinos, time in the U. These gaps in the literature are also apparent when examining a more static concept—immigrant status. For example, in one study, rates of forced sex were not significantly different among Whites. Additional studies report non- significant differences by levels of acculturation Denham et al.
The experience of IPV in a marginalized ethnic and immi- grant group is no doubt reflective of the larger processes of acculturation and immigration that reflect migration and ad- aptation to the U. Immigrant status and acculturation have not been well studied in tandem, obscuring the potential interaction between these variables. Overall, threats occur frequently in abusive relationships, but more estimates are needed from the population of Latino women. For example, in one study, rates of forced sex were not significantly different among Whites. These gaps in the literature are also apparent when examining a more static concept—immigrant status. Others have found that English proficiency reduced the risk of violence in mul- tivariate models, but not bivariate analyses Frias and Angel Threats were associated with severe physical violence among pregnant Latino women McFarlane, Wiist, and Wat s o n b; Wiist and McFarlane andthe general population Miller , again pointing to the overlap of various forms of IPV. Studies have found estimated lifetime rates between 8. One study that included both acculturation and immigrant status found differential effects of acculturation J Fam Viol Moreover, methodologies which tap a particular segment of the Latino population e. Lastly, data from the National Crime Victimization Survey shows Latino women are less likely to experience rape and sexual assault. Studies of the general population Bonomi, Anderson, Cannon, Slesnick, and Rodriguez ; Ingram ; Sorenson and Telles ;Tjadenand Thoennes as well as studies of help-seekers Torres found rates of lifetime physical IPV among Latinos to be comparable or lower than Whites or non-Latinos. For immigrant Latinos, time in the U. Studies have estimated that lifetime physical IPV among Latino women range between For example, American orientation among Mexican- American husbands was associated with more frequent con- flict, argument intensity, and conflict behavior Flores et al. Nonetheless, analysis of the SALAS data showed no sig- nificant differences in the rates of victimization among un- documented women compared to other immigrants with per- manent status Zadnik, Sabina, and Cuevas These findings indicate a need for more consistent measurement strategies, clearer definitions, and inclusion of the full diversity of Latinos. Further research needs to be conducted regarding stalking in general, as well as experiences of stalking among racial and ethnic groups. Substantially higher rates of stalking were found in a college sample of Mexican-American women Additional studies report non- significant differences by levels of acculturation Denham et al. Undocumented immigrant women reported higher rates of physical, sexual, and psychological abuse from an intimate partner than women with permanent status or naturalized citizens Hass et al. Intimate partner sexual violence could include, but is not limited to, rape, sexual coercion, and sexual harassment. However, abusive partners may use immigration-related tactics to con- trol or coerce a woman Erez, Adelman, and Gregory ; Hass et al. Shortcomings of the extant literature include: Likewise, acculturation affects family functioning and gender roles within the family, including family conflict processes Flores et al. These shortcomings, along with differing samples of Latinos across studies, may contribute to inconsistencies and apparent contradictions in understanding acculturative impacts on IPV. Understanding the relationship between immigrant status, acculturation, and IPVis important for our understand- ing of not only IPV, but also shedding light on the intra-family changes that occur with intercultural negotiation.
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