A study of females found a leftward shift in caudate volume asymmetry and greater white matter volume in BDD than healthy control subjects Abnormalities of visual processing and fronto-striatal systems in body dysmorphic disorder. Pictures of Facial Affect. Moreover, in a study in which BDD patients were asked to interpret various ambiguous scenarios, they reported threatening interpretations for general situations, social situations, and body-focused situations, whereas healthy control subjects showed no bias and OCD subjects had a bias toward threatening interpretations only for general situations Common and distinct neural correlates of obsessive-compulsive and related disorders. Recent research has also examined emotion recognition in BDD Center for Speech Pathology and Neurorehabilitation, Moscow, Russia Moscow Research Institute of Psychiatry, Moscow, Russia Behav Res of standardized norms provide values for different parame- ters such as name and image agreement, picture visual complexity, conceptual familiarity, word age of acquisition, imageability, etc. BDD most often begins in adolescence 3 , a period in development of accelerated changes in physical appearance as well as hormonal milieu; these factors may potentially contribute to, or trigger, the development of BDD, but have yet to be studied directly.
The evolutionary psychology of facial beauty. Facial attractiveness ratings and perfectionism in body dysmorphic disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder. BDD subjects demonstrated relative hypoactivity in primary and secondary visual cortical systems for low-detail images of their own and familiar faces, suggesting abnormal brain activity for configural and holistic elements. BDD subjects also endorsed high levels of perfectionistic thinking. Oxford University Press; These neuropsychological deficits related to an excessive focus on detail versus global processing, and sensitivity to perceived flaws may be related to one of the core clinical features of BDD. This has largely been due to the growing recognition of the critical role of verbs in lan- guage disorders. Regional brain volumes and symptom severity in body dysmorphic disorder. Early experiences that positively reinforce an individual for appearance may play an important role in BDD development, but have yet to be studied directly. The IAT requires the rapid categorization of various stimuli, and easier pairings and faster responses are interpreted as being more strongly associated in memory. However, many questions remain; just one example is whether the above-noted brain abnormalities are inherited phenotypes or develop as a result of the disorder. These information-processing biases likely lead to feelings of shame, depression and anxiety. Psychiatr Clin North Am. To better understand whether individuals with BDD have more general abnormalities in visual processing, the same group performed an fMRI experiment in which 14 BDD subjects and 14 healthy controls matched photographs of houses Abnormalities of visual processing and fronto-striatal systems in body dysmorphic disorder. The inverted faces study additionally suggests that this global vs. This relief represents a negative reinforcer in that it increases the probability that the avoidance behavior will be used again when in a similar situation. Social learning theory and cognitive behavioral models of body dysmorphic disorder. Thus, one hypothesis is that right hemisphere dysfunction could put an individual at risk for developing BDD, which could be exacerbated by dysfunction in frontal-striatal circuits, contributing to BDD-related obsessive thoughts and compulsions. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. Dysfunction in specific areas of the brain such as visual cortical systems could lead to distorted perception of body and face, and to an inability to correct this distortion or inhibit fronto-striatal responses to aversive stimuli related to the body. Moreover, fronto-striatal activation correlated with severity of BDD-related obsessive thoughts and compulsive behaviors. Nevertheless, there is preliminary evidence that sexual, emotional, and physical abuse in childhood may be associated with BDD. Furthermore, the verb—noun discrepancy effect may be eliminated in some patients when certain aspects of stimuli are controlled. Feeling good about the way you look:
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