The investigation began after police received information about unreported sexual assaults due to an increase in drug activity. During the course of the investigation, officers seized LSD, cocaine, psilocybin mushrooms , opioids, amphetamines, steroids, hashish and marijuana. Additionally, to explore and account for possible confounding and interaction in the associations with race, five variables that have been linked to patterns of substance use were included in analyses for control: A spokeswoman for the college issued the following statement: The remainder of the analysis focused on reported use of and urine-detected cocaine and marijuana; few participants screened positive for other drugs, and prior research indicates that these are two of the most prevalent drugs used by MSM Sanchez et al. To the extent that drug use reporting patterns might vary by race among MSM, the previously reported findings on drug use and race among MSM may be biased.
These differences in validity may be reflective of unmeasured confounding, recruitment biases, or of racially-differential acceptability of and reactions to the measurement tools. Com, West Hills, CA. At the baseline visit, participants received HIV prevention counseling and provided three specimens: Drug use may contribute to these disparities, yet previous studies have failed to provide evidence of elevated use among black MSM, relying exclusively on self-reported usage. To examine differences in the underlying experiences and demographic characteristics of the sample, these five variables were compared across black and white participants using chi-squared tests. Although data from general populations provide reason to question the validity of self-reported drug use by race, the issue has not been explored among MSM. In models where the interaction was non-significant, the product term was dropped, and a Wald test for the control variable term provided a race-adjusted test of significance. In the period from to , the greatest change in HIV incidence was observed among black MSM ages 13 to 29, for whom incidence increased 48 percent Prejean et al. In brief, participants were recruited through venue-based sampling MacKellar et al. Of the men who enrolled, eight were subsequently removed from analyses six duplicate enrollments, two determined to not have met eligibility criteria , yielding a total sample of men black non-Hispanic, white non-Hispanic. To address this knowledge gap, we assessed racial differences in self-reported drug use, drug screen positivity, and self-report validity and explored factors associated with drug use and reporting among a cohort of black and white non-Hispanic MSM in Atlanta, GA. WVEC also reports that another one of the suspects, Timothy Tyrone Pryor, is also an employee, though his role at the school was not immediately clear. Analyses were performed using SAS version 9. Black participants were also less likely to identify as gay and more likely to report a history of arrest. Drug-related arrests are significantly higher among blacks, a difference that is only partially explained by the nature or extent of drug use, pointing to the influence of racial biases and discrimination in the legal system Mitchell and Caudy, As some variables had missing responses, all analyses were restricted to complete cases; participants with missing responses on one or more component variable were dropped. Relative to white participants, black participants were younger, less likely to have completed college, and had lower annual household income. Evidence suggests that findings among heterosexual populations may not be reliably extrapolated to MSM because MSM report higher levels of use and a wider variety of drugs Stall et al. The publisher's final edited version of this article is available at Drug Alcohol Depend See other articles in PMC that cite the published article. The first two measured the period prevalence of each individual drug by self-report of any use in the past twelve months and positive test results from the urinalysis. The third outcome quantified the validity of self-reported usage and was defined as the proportion of men who reported use among those who screened positive i. In the consent process, participants were informed that their urine would be screened for common drugs of abuse, but that results would be used exclusively for research purposes and would not influence study participation. All 10 suspects have been arrested and charged with narcotics distribution offenses, several occurring on or around the campus. The estimated detection periods for the test used are 2—4 days for cocaine and opiates, 5—30 days for marijuana, 1—3 days for ecstasy, and 3—5 days for methamphetamine. Similar calculations compared the prevalence of positive test results by race for each of the five drugs screened for in the urinalysis. For the twelve drug types queried in the questionnaire, the proportions of black and white participants reporting use were tallied and compared using unadjusted prevalence ratios.
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