Unravelling and undertaking separate studies on the influence of hormones, of the genes of the sex chromosomes, and not least those of our environment, is only the first step. Influenza A strain infections have caused about a million deaths over the last hundred years. With respect to humans a higher titre of NK cells is present in men; neutrophils and macrophages in contrast are all the more active in women. Finally, the sexes also differ in their response to protective inoculations. Different infections With this in mind, Cory Teuscher and her colleagues from the University of Vermont bred mice whose genetic makeup matched for all chromosomes other than the Y chromosome, and exposed the animals to pathogenic influenza A and Coxsackie B3 viruses. This rule applies to almost all higher creatures. In almost all common vaccinations the antibody response in women is significantly higher than in men.
From among approximately genes, many are not affected by the inactivation of the second X-chromosome. This means, in turn, that girls need a lower vaccine dose for the same titre than do boys. When taking into consideration all types of pathogenic microorganisms, men are more likely to be the target of an infection than are women; in the female the pathogens mostly strike a massive defence system and this therefore leads to higher survival rates. It is therefore implied that sex hormones have a significant influence on the immune system and ultimately provide for a more effective body defence in the female. This rule applies to almost all higher creatures. With regard to autoimmune diseases, however, women are rather more often affected: The same also applies to systemic anaphylactic reactions. Different infections With this in mind, Cory Teuscher and her colleagues from the University of Vermont bred mice whose genetic makeup matched for all chromosomes other than the Y chromosome, and exposed the animals to pathogenic influenza A and Coxsackie B3 viruses. Certain variants promoted inflammatory processes in the lungs and the activation of the respective lung cytokines such as IL An entire arsenal of genes on the X chromosome has an influence on the defence system. Depending on the origin of the Y chromosome, the immune responses to influenza differed. In contrast, there is hormone-independent regulation of these epigenetic modifications by factors encoded on the sex chromosomes X and Y. An article published in the journal PNAS a few weeks ago shows just this. It does appear that hormone-signalling is indeed involved in a variety of effects. Unravelling and undertaking separate studies on the influence of hormones, of the genes of the sex chromosomes, and not least those of our environment, is only the first step. Sexual hormones regulate a whole series of metabolic pathways, including the expression of numerous genes in B and T cells, mast cells, dendritic cells, macrophages and NK cells. Well-filled inflammatory munition depots Adam Moeser and his colleagues from Michigan State University similarly posed the question as to why women have a stronger response to stress and allergens than do men. Moreover the controlling authorities in the USA and Europe are ever more often demanding a balanced gender ratio with respect to the planning and interpretation of studies — even in animal experiments in the preclinical area. In mice this figure is about seven percent, in humans fifteen. Many nowadays regard this hypothesis to be obsolete. The serum histamine level was found to be higher in females and intestinal permeability increased more than in the males. Women are much more frequently and severely affected than men. Despite this, the risk of an AIDS onset is 1. Studies have also shown that oestrogens influence the methylation patterns of genes in immune cells. The same is true for infections with the HI virus.
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