Among the cohort of subjects studied, women had a significantly higher perceived satisfaction than men and the authors explained this difference by the greater predisposition of women to help others. The multidisciplinary application of this concept contributed to the birth of Gender Medicine and, in , to the creation of the Italian Society of Gender Health and Medicine 3 , which has the purpose of encouraging the development of a culture that takes into account gender differences in all fields of health services, stimulating a specific, scientific approach and systematic attention to this new area of biomedical research. Adverse reactions are generally intended to mean vasovagal reactions in their spectrum of manifestations, which ranges from pins-and-needles of the arm to loss of consciousness. Starting from these considerations some working indications can be drafted for development into specific projects, verification of efficacy, and possible extension to all blood donation centres: Bilancio sociale Avis Veneto; available at http: About 80 publications were evaluated. Adjusting our management of female blood donors: Predonation water ingestion attenuates negative reactions to blood donation.
Another study 25 investigated what socio-demographic factors determine the proportion of blood donors in different urban areas of the State of Victoria in Australia; the authors crossed the data from about 30, donors age, gender, number of donations, area of residence determined by the postal code with census data of the general population living in the same areas as the donors. Reduction of adverse reactions Among the strategies studied to achieve a reduction in adverse reactions and, consequently, an increase in the rate of return of donors, four have gained particular attention: A few aspects specific to the management of donors in Italy also emerged. Potential gender differences were not, however, discussed. The concept of health was, therefore, expanded to include a new dimension, gender, which not only has genetic and physiological implications, but also psychological, cultural and social ones. Altruism is the most frequently mentioned reason for giving blood 17 , although research has shown that other factors also seem to play important roles. In contrast, there is a paucity of gender studies in the transfusion sector in a broad sense: A similar rate of adverse reactions was, however, reported in a study of a population of Greek blood donors, in whom the percentage of such reactions was 0. Analysis of these data did not show differences in adverse reactions between men and women, despite the fact that such differences have been repeatedly reported in the literature. Particular attention should be given to the negative influence that adverse reactions have on whether donors return to give blood again. Re-donation intentions among experienced blood donors: A recent Italian study 55 recorded a rather low rate of adverse reactions 1. Indeed, there are only a few published studies that have investigated this phenomenon Another study 33 showed a gender difference in the time between donations, which appeared to be shorter between the first and second donations in women, whereas from the third donation onwards, the interval between one donation and another was shorter among men than among women; these findings must, however, be considered in the light of a greater frequency of donation among men in particular in Italy where, unlike in many other countries, women of child-bearing age are only allowed to give whole blood twice a year. Possible symptoms of a STD could vary from itching, nausea, flu-like symptoms and discharge, and if left untreated could result in infertility, pelvic inflammatory disease and death. In other European countries a higher frequency is allowed, varying between four and six donations per year for men and between three and four for women. The effect of a mL oz water drink on vasovagal donor reaction rates in high-school students. The effect of short term, temporary blood deferral on future blood donation. Iron depletion by whole-blood donation harms menstruating females: In a study 38 in which some socio-demographic variables such as gender and race were investigated, it was found that male donors, more than female ones, tended to consider incentives small presents or gadgets as important in influencing their decision to give blood again; the same study also highlighted that there was a gender effect among new Hispanic and Black donors, with women being more represented whereas the percentages of male and female Asian and Caucasian donors were similar. Adjusting our management of female blood donors: Annual Report Belgian Red Cross, , available at: Methods To determine the proportion of women among donors in European countries, data were collected from annual reports or documents available on the websites of national associations; furthermore, all papers related to giving blood published in the five main journals in the sector Transfusion, Vox Sanguinis, Transfusion and Apheresis Science, Transfusion Medicine, Blood Transfusion were considered; about 80 publications were selected and the gender variable was examined. First year donation patterns predict long term commitment for first time donors. The effects of applied tension on symptoms in French-speaking blood donors: The prevalence of adverse reactions in subjects making multicomponent donations was also determined in the already mentioned Italian study 57 ; no gender differences were found in that study. A survey-based questionnaire study.
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